Future proof is not future ready

Adapting to change

The future is always changing. Whether you like it or not: change is a constant. As the future can not be predicted, the best way to prepare for a future is to embrace the possibilities that lie ahead of you. In our work at Minkowski we help organizations map these possibilities in a so-called ‘cone of possibilities’. The basic idea behind this, is that you explore what is possible for your organization in the near future and identify what these possibilities could mean for your company. By doing this you’ll be able to identify the (weak) signals of a possible future, so that when these signals show up, you know how to respond to them (or how to use them to accelerate on your strategic path forward). There’s one crucial factor in doing this successfully: you really have to believe that these possibilities could occur and you really have to believe that you are able to react to them with your organization. Or in other words: you have to embrace these possibilities: you have to embrace the future.

From future proof to future ready

What does this mean? Let’s look back at that last sentence: ’embrace the future’. And let’s use the analogy of something that is ‘waterproof’ and replace the word future for the word water. Embracing the future then becomes: embracing the water. For something that should be waterproof that is the last thing you want. Instead of embracing the water you would want to keep the water out. Now ask yourself: if you want to prepare your organization for the future do you want to keep the future out?

I’m assuming that your answer to that question is ‘no’. You don’t want to keep the future out, on the contrary, you would want to get the future in. As I’ve described above, the way we get the future in with our work at Minkowski is by starting from the future and then reasoning our way back to today. This way ‘the future’ is ingrained in all the things you do afterward. As soon as you’ve seen something, you can never not see it anymore (at least if you really believe in the possibility) and this also goes for your thoughts about the future.

If it’s not future proof, then what should it be? Arjan suggested ‘future ready’. If you phrase it like that futures thinking becomes an activity to make yourself ready for when that future emerges. Just like you get ready for the final of a big tournament you can then train yourself for it.

We believe that is a much better way to make your organization sensitive for the changes that lie ahead, because the question is not: will it change, but when will it change?

Get in touch with us to discuss how we can help you to get ready for the future here.

The End of the Fairytale

Cultural Change

Some fundamental challenges in our world have not been solved during the lock-down. As we are in the midst of protests around the world on racism we realize that life is not ‘back to normal’ again. Or perhaps I should say: it shouldn’t go back to normal again as for some many people around the world this ‘normal’ is far from a life they long to go back to. This challenge, if you can even call it that, has been a pandemic that has been raging around the world for centuries and it is not a challenge that we can easily cure by staying inside. The transformation that is needed for this is so fundamental that its wickedly difficult to make steps to a better future for all. It’s a cultural change that will be with us for a long time and that will demand our attention in all levels and sectors of society. Or so I hope…

Economic Change

Then there is the economic impact of the COVID-19 crisis. The virus might lay low for a bit, but the real impact of it is yet to be felt for many people. Financial support and economic relief programs have thus far eased some of the pain for a lot of people. Now that the world is restarting, it may seem as if it can recover, but this is also the time where some of the support will fall away. Economically, many businesses and its employees will not have recovered for quite a some time. We are still up for a huge challenge.

We’ve come to the end of the COVID-19 fairy tale. I hear some people around me already saying that they had hoped it would last a little longer as the world out there seems brutal. The question is: what do you do? If you are feeling a bit of relief (even though it might be temporary) this is the time to reset yourself. This is the time to prepare yourself for what is yet to come.

Reset, restart, reboot

 

 

Without empathy there is no collaboration

The other week I was asked to talk about collaboration at a company with a group of architects. They were trying to cross the boundaries of their silo’ed departments more often in an attempt to become more innovative. They’d tried many things but none of them really stuck.

One of the reasons for this, as my friend Maria so nicely explained to me before, is because (company) culture is a complex (and very resilient) ecosystem. Just like in nature those resilient systems can only be changed by a ‘comet-strikes-earth’ approach (but that will leave a lot of destruction in the wake of the trail) or by turning a lot of little changes into an evolutionary change (that way you can actually direct or lead the change). So what I suggested the company to do, is to deliberately design for small interventions of collaboration and I gave them a recipe on how to do this.

Slowing down to build relationships so you can speed up on innovation
The one most crucial first ingredient of that recipe is ‘empathy’: connect with your collaborators on an emotional and personal level first. So very often people forget to do this. We all run into meetings or gatherings, sit down and get things going. But when you do that, you have no idea ‘where people are coming from’. What’s on their minds, what’s in their heart, are they really present in this moment of collaboration or ‘is their head somewhere else’? And even: who are they?

In my work I always take time for this ‘empathy’ phase. For instance, with this company I asked them all to share a personal experience of moment when they collaborated best. It sets the tone for the rest of the meeting, it builds personal relationships and it increases the chance of being better collaborators. More and more I take this approach of really ‘checking in with the people around me’ to my personal life as well and I have turned it into a version of what Morris Pickens taught me as ‘your locker room’ moment. Thanks for that Mo!

Nobody knows Minkowski, but everyone knows Einstein

At Minkowski we always say: “nobody knows Minkowski, but everyone knows Einstein”. We use this statement as an illustration for something that is at the core of who we are and what we hope to accomplish in our work. Our work is not about us, it is about the people we help and work with. And we believe that our work can only be successful (help organizations with transformation) when it is not us that execute a transformation for our clients, but it is the people inside organizations themselves that make a transformation happen. It is them that should be in the limelight not us.

 

A million Einsteins to change the world

Minkowski was one of Einsteins teachers. He was of course in no way responsible for all the great work that Einstein accomplished, but judging from the documented interactions that they had on special relativity at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, where Minkowski taught Einstein, they both learned from each other. Einstein’s theories have changed the way that we see the world and it has transformed everything we do and learn. That is our goal as well: we have the ambition to ‘create’ a million Einsteins so that the world can transform and become a little bit more sustainable.

 

Agency for change

So our story for transformation is a story about empowerment of individuals. Through the actions (and interactions) of the people we work with we think that transformation becomes much more successful (I’ll write some more on the reason for that in a next post). Our programs are designed to give the people in companies ‘agency for change’: the capacity to act in a given environment. That means that we also take responsibility to give people the ‘tools’ to make it happen, because otherwise, when we leave our impact is gone too. Just like Minkowski: you don’t take away from someone what you’ve learned them.

 

Einstein, who was primarily interested in physics at the time, found great value in mathematics only years later when he used some of Minkowski’s fundamental mathematical equations in his own theory. It’s a great example of giving someone agency to act and go way beyond the initial spark.

 

 

So: nobody knows Minkowski, but everyone knows Einstein. And that is just the way it should be. This goes for us as well: we don’t strive to be known, we’d rather let the results of our sparks speak from the words of the people we have worked with.

How to: moonshot thinking in a crisis

Many organizations are in survival mode after the corona-crisis has almost put the entire world to a stop. During such times of uncertainty and extreme volatility it gets very hard to focus on the long term. The present is for most organizations most pressing at this moment in order to stay alive and to try to control the damage. ‘Moonshot thinking’ as a business practice to identify where you want to be in the future seems to be irrelevant right now. But during the Apollo-program many challenging moments were part of the path to the moon. And most of the biggest problems were overcome. In times of crisis you can find inspiration not from the Apollo-11 mission that got humanity to the moon, but from the Apollo-13 mission that got a crew safely back to home base in a life threatening crisis. Here are some take-aways from that historic moment that you might be able to apply to your business today.

Moonshot thinking: from Apollo 11 to Apollo 13

Could it be a coincidence that exactly 50 years ago (on April 13) the third mission to land on the moon ran into a major problem when one of the oxygen tanks blew up? Things unraveled fast after that. If you want to get into the details of everything that went wrong and how it was solved, then I can greatly recommend Gene Kranz‘s recount of the events in his book ‘Failure is not an Option‘. Kranz was the flight director in mission control during the Apollo 13 mission.

This is what I have taken from his account, translated to making better business decisions in a time of crisis. It’s a long list of ingredients that work, but it can all be summarized in three words: courage, resourcefulness and experience.

Courage

  • trust your intuition (it comes from your experience and what worked in previous crises).
  • trust your team, and your team trusting you is of the utmost importance, because you don’t have time to brief everyone in detail.
  • don’t second guess each others decisions: you’re in it together, everyone is responsible for every decision.
  • make sure everyone can voice their opinions freely and that no one is worried about hurting someone’s feelings (it saves a lot of time).
  • believe that you are going to get through it: believe in a positive outcome (and then your teams will too) and operate from it.

Resourcefulness

  • build a plan on every decision that needs to be made and when it needs to be made.
  • make everyone part of the solution.
  • a 100% correct answer on most challenges doesn’t exist: rely on best judgments.
  • avoid chatter and communicate clearly in smaller (sub) teams, so you can stay away from too many distractions.
  • focus on what is still working/going well, because those are most likely the things that you can use as a lifeline to the future.
  • take good care of the ‘resources’ you have, they are the ones that are crucial. So don’t let them get distracted by guessing what they have to do.
  • make sure to have fresh eyes look at your situation too, either from outside or from a separate team so you don’t miss any opportunities because you are operating from your own tunnel vision.
  • work on multiple options (all possible options) first and then make a swift decision which one to follow. Get there through brief, intense and conclusive conversation together.
  • always think in options.
  • and remember to believe in a positive outcome: failure is not an option!

Experience

  • the most difficult of all, because you should have already done this before a crisis. During the Apollo-program the SimSup-team imagined every conceivable spacecraft failure and they then developed workarounds and procedures based on simulating these failures and the solutions that were found. This gave everyone a ton of experience to build upon in times of crisis.
  • make sure that you reflect and learn from what you’ve done after this crisis is over.

Safely back on earth

Today, exactly 50 years ago, on April 17th the Apollo 13 crew safely returned back on earth landing in the South Pacific. I hope that for all of you out there, that are trying to safely return to some kind of ‘home base’, you will find the courage, the resourcefulness and the ability to guide your organizations to a new dynamic equilibrium. Failure is not an option and adversity can be overcome.

For the years of pandemic crisis to come the new moonshot thinking will be about returning home safely, not about getting to the moon. And so we shift from the Apollo 11 thinking that got us to the moon, tot the Apollo 13 thinking that brought us back.

If you want to chat about what you could do and how you can apply these ingredients to design a sustainable path out of this for your organization, let me know and we’ll jump on a call to discuss the possibilities for your future.

The effects of virtual closeness and physical distancing

A fascinating thing is taking root in our societies these days. For years we’ve heard complaints about people loosing touch with the localities they live in while taking refuge in (sometimes extreme) online environments. It was often said that nobody knows their neighbor anymore, but that everyone could find like minded people online creating these virtual echo-chambers of opinion and populism. I think that the corona-virus will eventually have a bigger impact on shifts in society than it will have on public health, because: the physical distancing rules that are in place are pushing more people online to experience virtual closeness.

From social distancing to psychological nearing

Many of you will have worked from home and will have used various online conferencing tools (maybe for the first time). At first that might have felt awkward and strange, but I bet that after a few times it is already beginning to feel more natural. I’m beginning to hear remarks around me that people actually enjoy the fact that they don’t have to travel for meetings anymore and that an online meeting can be just as effective. In some instances (when you are in a one-on-one video conference) it might even feel more intimate than when you would have met the person in the physical world. Even psychiatrists are pushing their practice online.

For many of us, this time of social distancing will begin to feel more and more like an emotional nearing to the other (be it online). By the time we reach the end of this pandemic many organizations will question their old ways of doing things and wonder whether they should keep up with part of the online practice as it saves time and money. This experience of meaningful connection is spreading throughout all layers of society and age cohorts just as fast as the corona-virus is spreading around the world. A big societal shift is thus already under way.

Distancing in the physical world

At the same time, when you are walking outside, the distance you feel to the people that you live in close proximity to is growing each day. You literally take a step back, to get out of someone’s (private) space. Cashiers have glass windows in front of them to separate them from their customers (everywhere now); massive gatherings are prohibited; children don’t meet and connect in their schools anymore. All these signals in the physical world are shouting at us: keep away from the people close to you.

It is fascinating to see and at the same time worrying if it is going to last too long. I hope that in the near future we will forget the distance we kept to our neighbors and that every community will throw the biggest party ever to celebrate that we’ve lived through this. But more importantly to celebrate being able to hold on to each other again.

Yes, we should learn from the effectiveness of online collaboration for the future, but let’s also not forget to hold on to some things from the past that are worth to cherish for the future.

The beauty of this pandemic

I’m writing this from Amsterdam, the Netherlands, where the schools have been closed for at least three weeks and almost everyone is working from home. Only the most vital functions in society are still fully operational: people in healthcare, educators, law enforcement, fire brigades, government, etc. I’m sure most of you across the globe are experiencing something similar or will soon. We can still go outside on the streets here and when you do, you see a new kind of society. I see parents with their kids playing, educating, shopping. The rat race has come to a full stop. Everyone nods at each other in mutual understanding. I wondered: can you imagine when society stays like this, what it would feel like? Of course, we have to beat that virus (it’s horrible, no question about that), but can you imagine a society in which the truly important functions are really valued for what they do? Can you imagine a society in which the rest of us are just taking a step back and have come to terms with ‘less’?

Striking educators, healthcare professionals and law enforcement

In the Netherlands we’ve seen strike after strike in the last few months. Educators demanded less pressure on their jobs and better payments to keep the system up. Healthcare professionals demanded more as well, as what they are paid is ridiculous in comparison to the meaningful work they are doing. Law enforcement, fire brigade people etc. demanded just a little bit more safety from civilians that attack them while they work. And farmers wanted to be able to produce food for our society without being limited in their work because the rest of us prefer to sit in our cars to work every day. But they got nowhere with their demands. However, right now it almost seems as if the universe has aligned with them. All of a sudden we have this immediate threat to what matters most to us: our lives. And now we shut up and shut everything down that doesn’t really matter all that much. And everyone is in full support of these people that do make a difference. Now we value them, now we need them. Maybe we should keep that up after this pandemic starts to slow down.

The rest of us are in the backseat now

And the rest of us are slowing down. I have people around me, that are wondering what they’ve been doing up until this point. Was the work, and the stress related to that work, so important that they had to push everything to its boundaries? At the start of the year I wrote a post about entering a new decade: an era of less. I’ve called it the lessera. I have been struggling myself to find solutions for how I could do with less. The moment we are going through right now is showing us how it is possible to do with less. We can travel less to work and do things from home. We can work less and be home for our kids, just to name a few things.

At least at this short moment (who knows what tomorrow and the weeks after will look like), the world looks a whole lot better when we organize ourselves that way. There were no traffic jams today, there’s a calmness in the city and I see a whole lot more (emotional) connection than ever before. A friend who’s view on life I value tremendously, rabbi Irwin Kula from New York said it beautifully yesterday: “physical distancing invites us to develop new ways and opportunities to innovate emotional and psychological nearing”. I agree so much with that: we shouldn’t let this momentum go down in history as a pause of society after which we all jumped right back at it. I think we should see this moment as a reset and understand what is important and valuable and see if we can identify new principles for a more sustainable future for all (after we’ve beaten this virus). We are all in this together and the power of community that that generates makes the world so much better. Let’s embrace that and figure out for yourself these days: how can I do with less? How can I organize in ways that are more sustainable for the world, but more importantly for yourself?

Stay safe and take care…of each other.

The delusion of digital transformation

Is there a project in your company around digital transformation? I’m guessing that most of you are involved in, have heard of, or have been in a digital transformation program by now. If you haven’t, then your company is probably going to loose in the short term. At least, that is what people tell you. But if you take a good look at digital transformation then you’ll see that it might just be a delusion.

 

Digital native or immigrant

Some companies were born in the digital age. They have a digital product or service and they are successful in selling it to the masses. These companies show rapid growths and it hardly seems to cost them any effort to be successful. They are not going through any type of digital transformation, they just are digital.

 

Most other companies that are not digitally native look envious at them. And that is when they decide to launch a digital transformation initiative to catch up and be as successful as those new entrants into the market. And very often, they argue, they have a note worthy heritage, a lot of capital and will therefor beat the newcomers if they just fix this digital transformation thing. So they implement new software, start using SAAS-products, launch new things into the market, start collecting piles of data and get themselves trained in a digital mindset. But that is not what really matters.

 

Digital as a distraction for what matters

Digital transformation very often is just a distraction from what really matters and what transformation should be about. Yes, the world is changing rapidly and technology is an important driver for change, but merely digitizing is not a winning strategy. Incumbent companies seem to forget what they were great at and investigate and design how the thing they are great at can be sustainable in the future. Instead, they launch an innovation lab to embrace the digital and start experimenting and doing without reflecting on their past and asking what it is they really believe in (or believed in).

I’m not arguing that the world hasn’t changed. It has. And (digital) technology might have set it off exponentially. But that is just a starting point. The real change comes when people apply these technologies in daily life. Then you see that we’ve moved from delivering just a product at at single point in time, to delivering a continuous stream of value and building long-term relationships with clients. Businesses are no longer structured hierarchically. There is no longer a single product owner, but an entire team is in charge of product development. The way companies run has changed, but not what companies are about! It is still about the products and services that people want to pay for; the services they care for and that are valuable to them. Every (design) question for any company wanting to innovate (or transform) should be: how might I change a customer’s life?

 

What are you willing to struggle for?

If you believe that ‘digital transformation’ is a magic bullet that will solve all your challenges, then you are fighting a delusional battle. As soon as you’re done with digitizing the really disruptive change kicks in. You’ll realize that this digital transformation means that your systems should change, that behaviors of everyone involved should change and that your company structure is incapable of doing all of that at once. And before you know it you are going to argue to stop transforming: the projects are not making real money, it is taking too long, etc.

This happens because you haven’t identified the things that could come in the way of change: you’ve dreamed of an outcome and haven’t wondered about the process. Because transformation is a painful process. It is not just about what you want to be in the future, but also what you are willing to struggle for in getting it done.

 

Designing a cone of possibility

Yes, companies should transform to become more sustainable for their future, but digital is only a means to an end. Start by asking why you as an organization matter? Then explore what you want to achieve in doing that in the future; confront yourself with what is holding you and your company back and then start working (or perhaps I should say: struggle) towards it.

It is what we at Minkowski call ‘the design of a cone of possibility’. It has a strong grounding in your past and focuses on the future. It will allow you to take action (but not before you’ve confronted your limiting beliefs and have started to think differently). As a result of that process you will wake up to what really matters (what matters to your clients) and you can then begin to transform.

 

 

The future is not about digital transformation, the future is about transforming your organization to the possibilities that are in front of you.

Agile is good. Agility is better

How to achieve agility apart from using agile methodologies

Agile is not a silver bullet
Don’t get me wrong. I am a big advocate for agile methodologies. From the start I was involved in initiatives within ING that led to the successful agile transformation based on the Spotify model. This ‘agile way of working’, with multidisciplinary teams, called squads, and where the old functional departments have disappeared and merged into Tribes, combines a high degree of autonomy within teams with clear common goals and direction.

But I have seen (and tackled) enough examples in which agile does not lead to agility. And even though I am happy to help others with the use of the various agile methodologies:

An agile methodology is and remains a response to a need and not a goal in itself
Agility is a key to future success
Nobody can predict the future. It is therefore not surprising that in a lot of studies about success factors of business transformation, the ability to respond quickly and easily; usually defined as agility; is mentioned as the single most important capability for successful transformation.

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The concept of agility is not new, but due to the disruptive effect of exponential technologies, agility has really become a necessity for survival.

OK"¦ so what is agility?
There is of course no clear answer to this, but I prefer to use the model from the Global Center for Digital Business Transformation. In this model; agility is best thought of as a kind of meta-capability that rest upon three underlying capabilities:

1. Hyperawareness

The capability to detect and monitor changes in the environment (customers, employees, partners, market, etc.), particularly to changes that spotlight opportunities or threats.

2. Informed decision-making

The capability to make the best decision in a given situation. Collaborating and empowering people to make quick, evidence-based decisions.

3. Fast Execution

Putting decisions into practice rapidly, mobilizing resources dynamically, and continuously monitoring options and progress against goals.

If you take a some time to think about the above capabilities, you will quickly understand that there are many more options and answers to achieving agility in your organization. Agile is important here, but it is by no means sufficient if you really take agility seriously.

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How to asses agility?
A good start to determine the level of agility in your organization, department or yourself, is answering assessment questions about hyperawareness, informed decision-making and fast execution.

These questions usually start with: What is our / my ability to… An example could be: what is my ability to share information across the organization to support decision making? There are of course many examples of questions to assess your agility. If you are really interested, I would be happy to share more examples if desired.

The point I want to make here is that it is important to regularly ask yourself whether there is sufficient agility in yourself, your department and your organization. The challenge after assessment is to find solutions that improve agility at areas where there is demonstrably a deficiency.

How to use (design) questions to achieve more agility?
The design question "How might we…?" helps to give direction to the solution space that you are aiming for. Furthermore, the design question is a starting point for brainstorming ideas.

“How” helps us to think in possibilities; it suggests that we don’t have the answer yet.

“Might” opens up to various solutions, instead of ‘the one and only solution’.

“We” emphasizes the power of collaboration, of bringing various stakeholders to the table to better understand what problems we need to find solutions to

The Design Question, or "How might we"¦?" question provides a new lens to possible solutions. Various questions provide various directions. This not only helps to create ideas that answer that question, but in itself provides a strategy, a direction, to your future change.

Below three examples of Design Questions that can help brainstorm within your organization about possibilities to increase agility

"How might we be highly alert to the internal and external environment, particularly to changes that spotlight opportunities or threats?

"How might we collaborate and empower people to make quick, evidence- based decisions

"How might we put decisions into practice rapidly, mobilize resources dynamically, and continuously monitor options and progress against goals?

The possible answers and solutions are countless, but some approaches to innovation, such as design thinking and lean startup are really in the sweet spot of hyperawareness, informed decision-making and fast execution.

Why design thinking & lean startup almost always improves agility
Agile alone is no guarantee that you will consistently deliver truly engaging, impactful solutions. Agile can be a highly effective way of solving problems, but it doesn’t guarantee that you’re solving the right problems. Asking end users what they want, mostly results in incremental improvements, not breakthrough solutions.

Where agile is an approach to problem solving, design thinking is an approach to problem finding. It calls for a high degree of empathy and understanding of, and an iterative process of developing new ideas, challenging assumptions, and redefining problems, with the goal of identifying alternative solutions that might not necessarily be apparent.

Lean startup is a methodology for developing businesses and products, which aims to shorten product development cycles and rapidly discover if a proposed business model is viable; this is achieved by adopting a combination of business-hypothesis-driven experimentation, iterative product releases, and validated learning." It is a principled approach to new product development."

Agile naturally comes after design thinking and lean startup and is a way of working, based on an iterative development, incremental delivery and ongoing reassessment of an existing product, service and/or process.

Design thinking, lean startup and agile; a good combination
– Empathize, Define and Ideate through Design Thinking

– Turn ideas into business models following the lean startup

– Build and deliver the product incrementally and faster through agile processes.

Other iterative solutions to increase agility
There are an incredible number of approaches, apps, applications, methods and techniques that can boost hyperawareness, informed decision-making and/or fast execution in your organization. Ultimately it depends on the specific context what is desirable and will work. This too is ideally an iterative process, in which taking small innovative steps is essential. After all, it is much cheaper to fail quickly, which prevents large unnecessary investments. Only when it turns out that a solution works within the organization is it sensible to scale it to increase your agility

To change behavior: see before you act

When I was in junior high one of my teachers taught me to ‘never say what you don’t want to do’, because subconsciously you can not deal with that. Apparently it will plant a seed in your head leading you to do exactly what you didn’t want to do. In Dutch (and I don’t know if it translates well into English) we use the metaphor of ‘pink elephants’ to illustrate this. When you say to someone: don’t think of a pink elephant, a pink elephant will immediately jump into your mind.

Do pink elephants really jog your memory?
I don’t know about you, but I’ve never seen a pink elephant in my life. I don’t even know what it would look like. How can it jump into my mind when someone tells me to not think about it? So the use of the metaphor has always been a little awkward to me, but I got the point.

Fast forward a couple of decades and I find myself hosting a session recently. At the start of any session I agree upon a few ‘rules of engagement’ with the participants to make sure we will truly be collaborating. The rules are: listen attentively, speak with intention and no judgment. These rules are adapted from the first 3 stages of Otto Scharmer’s Theory U that will eventually set you up for a change in behavior. Or so I believe. As you can see, one of these rules states: ‘no judgment’. One participant recently confronted me with this and told me the metaphor of the pink elephant again.

Red cars as a filter to see the world
I was shocked by his observation. This was a classical catch-22: if I didn’t say anything about making judgments sessions would be less collaborative, but if I said ‘no judgments’ people would by subconsciously making even more judgments! Did my set-up always have an undesired effect and would collaboration never occur as a result?

No, it doesn’t. In fact I do want them to think about it. Only if you become aware of something and you see it, you can start to adjust your core beliefs about them, think differently the next time you interact, so that your behavior will really change and become more collaborative (we’ve adapted Keith Yamashita’s 4-step model of see-believe-think-act in our work at Minkowski).

It’s just like buying a new red car. You might have hardly seen any red car driving around. But as soon as you’ve bought one, you see them everywhere. And that is exactly the effect I want to achieve by saying ‘no judgment’.